President and CEO
Chartered Professional Accountants of British Columbia
Lori Mathison, FCPA, FCGA, LLB, is President and CEO of the Chartered Professional Accountants of British Columbia. She also serves as Chair of the CPA Western School of Business.
Previously, Lori was the Managing Partner of the Vancouver office of Dentons Canada LLP, where she was a Partner in Dentons' Tax Law Group. She has been recognized by her peers as one of Canada's leading lawyers in the area of Tax Law by the Best Lawyers in Canada publication, and has served as a Governor of the Canadian Tax Foundation.
Lori also serves on the Dean's Advisory Committee at the UBC Centre for Business Law and on the Faculty Advisory Board for the Sauder School of Business at UBC.
President and CEO
Kryton International Inc.
Kari Yuers, FACI, was elected to the Board of Directors of the Greater Vancouver Board of Trade in 2015 and has since been appointed Vice Chair and Policy Council Chair. She is the President and CEO of Kryton International Inc., a concrete waterproofing manufac¬turer based out of Vancouver, BC, Canada. Best known for her ability to build organizations and effect change, Kari has led the charge in legitimizing the category of integral crystalline technology and the use of admixtures for concrete waterproofing. Under Kari's leadership, Kryton has flourished from a family-run business to a com¬pany with offices and distribution in over 50 countries.
Kari received the EY Entrepreneur of the Year Award, Pacific Region, Business to Business Category in 2003. She went on to receive Awards of Merit and Professional Achievement from Construction Specifications Canada in 2002 and 2004, and the American Concrete Institute in 2005. Kari was appointed a Fellow of the American Concrete Institute (FACI) in 2010. In 2012 Kari received the Influential Woman in Business Award. Kryton was named one of the Best Companies to Work for in British Columbia for four consecutive years.
Mary Anne Davidson
Vice-Chair and Policy Council Chair
Evi Mustel, CMRP
Evi Mustel, CMRPLinkedIn
Evi Mustel is the co-founder and one of the principals of Mustel Group, a Vancouver-based market and opinion research company. She has over 30 years experience in the research industry. With extensive experience conducting research in virtually every sector of business, Evi has specialized expertise in communications, public affairs, and customer satisfaction research.
Her clients include provincial, regional and municipal governments, federal government agencies, corporations, not-for-profit organizations and business and professional associations. Evi has designed and conducted studies on many of today's most important economic, environmental and social issues.
Regional Director – B.C. & the North
Christopher is a Regional Director – B.C. & the North for BDC Advisory. He has acquired a deep expertise in the SME space, having personally provided 350+ Canadian private companies with management consulting solutions to help them grow, become more efficient and enhance their management capabilities. Christopher now oversees marketplace operations and business development teams for BDC Advisory in the region, transforming it into one of the largest and fastest growing management consulting firms in Greater Vancouver.
Christopher is privileged to have served his country as an Officer in the Canadian Army (Reserve) and was a recipient of the "Top 40 Under 40" award from Business In Vancouver in 2017. He holds an Executive MBA (Corporate Finance) from Queen's University and attained the Certified Management Accounting designation (now Chartered Professional Accountants), receiving the organization's "Strategic Excellence Award" in 2010.
Christopher is the first and only student participant from our Leaders of Tomorrow (LOT) Signature Program to have advanced through the organization to a position on the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors.
Finance and Audit Committee Chair
Regional Vice-President, Commercial Financial Services, B.C.
RBC Royal Bank
Todd Shewfelt is Regional Vice-President, Commercial Financial Services with RBC Royal Bank. He is responsible for leadership and direction of B.C.'s team of Commercial Bankers serving business clients from 16 centres across the region. Clients include mid-sized private and public companies from all industries that are based in B.C.
Todd has been with RBC for 14 years, and during his banking career, has held a number of leadership positions covering a broad range of customer markets. Throughout his career he has been actively involved in many local community organizations and boards.
World Trade Centre Committee Chair
Twin Brook Developments Ltd.
Mr. Dhir is a seasoned Sales, Marketing, and Communications Executive who has a passion for challenge & community service. Robin Dhir is President of Twin Brook Developments Ltd. which focuses on the development, construction, and management of real estate. Established in 1999, Twin Brook has holdings and business ventures in Canada, India, and the United States. Simultaneously, Mr. Dhir is a Strategic Advisor with B.C.'s largest Business Law Firm, Fasken Martineau.
In 2015, Robin was elected to the Greater Vancouver Board of Trade Board of Directors. In 2016, Mr. Dhir was asked to join and was elected to the United Way of the Lower Mainland Board as well. He was appointed by the Minister of International Trade to a Crown Corporation of the BC Government called Forestry Innovation Investment in 2017. Also, in 2017, Robin was appointed to the Board of the Abbotsford Airport Authority by Abbotsford City Council.
In March 2008, Mr. Dhir was named as B.C.'s 100 Most Influential Indo–Canadians by the Vancouver Sun. In December 2011, Robin was selected amongst an accomplished group of Young Professionals by Business in Vancouver as one of BC's Top 40 Under Forty. In 2013, Darpan Magazine's Extraordinary Achievement Awards Gala selected Mr. Dhir for the Advancing Philanthropy Category. Also, The Goel Family Charitable Foundation & UBC awarded Robin with the Nehru Humanitarian Award for all of his community and fundraising efforts.
Immediate Past Chair
Anne Giardini, O.C., O.B.C., Q.C.
Simon Fraser University
Anne Giardini, O.C., O.B.C., Q.C.LinkedIn
Anne Giardini, O.C., Q.C., is a corporate director and Chancellor of Simon Fraser University. She was previously Canadian President of Weyerhaeuser, an international forest products company, after serving Weyerhaeuser's Canadian General Counsel. She is an Officer of the Order of Canada, and has received a Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal, a Lexpert Zenith Award, the Robert V. A. Jones Award recognizing leadership in corporate counsel practice and exceptional contributions to the Corporate Counsel bar or community. A former columnist for the National Post, Anne is also the author of two novels and has edited a book of writing advice.
Member at Large
Brent is currently Chair of the Board of Boyden Canada, one of the largest and leading executive search firms in Canada, with five offices and over 120 professionals across the country conducting critical executive placements from coast to coast. Globally, Boyden includes 70 offices in 40 countries, with Canada among the top three largest countries within the Boyden network. 4
Since 2014, Brent has served as Managing Partner of Boyden's Vancouver office. With a team of 30, the Vancouver office has been servicing clients in Western Canada for 47 years, conducting CEO and executive level recruitments for public sector, private sector, and not for profit clients.
Brent is currently a member of the United Way of the Lower Mainland Campaign Cabinet, which raises millions of dollars annually to support over 300,000 people in the Lower Mainland. He is also a Board Member of the Take a Hike Foundation, an alternative education program that engages at-risk youth in BC. He is a past Board member and Chair of the Governance Committee of the UBC Alumni Association.
Vancouver Managing Partner, Co-Head of Aboriginal Law Environmental Aboriginal and Regulatory Lawyer
Bennett Jones LLP
Radha Curpen is the Vancouver Managing Partner and co-Chair of the Bennet Jones' Aboriginal law practice. She has deep experience in regulatory compliance, and crisis prevention and management, including the transportation of dangerous goods by all means of transportation, the defence of environmental litigation, and the avoidance and defence of environmental related prosecutions. She negotiates with regulatory authorities and Aboriginal communities on project developments and approvals. She manages and advises on contaminated site issues in several jurisdictions in North America and the environmental assessment process and advises on environmental issues in commercial transactions in Canada and the United States. She advises on Business Sustainability.
She was an Adjunct Professor at the University of Toronto Faculty of Law for the Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility course. She is called in British Columbia, Ontario, and Manitoba and is admitted to the New York Bar. She practises in both English & French. Recognized as one of Canada's leading environmental lawyers by The Best Lawyers in Canada, as a leading practitioner in environmental law by The Best Lawyers in America, in environmental law by Chambers Global and recognized among Canada's leading energy lawyers by Lexpert®.
Greater Vancouver Board of Trade
2018-19 BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Bridgitte Anderson, ICD.D
Bridgitte Anderson, ICD.DLinkedIn
Bridgitte Anderson, ICD.D, is a business leader with 30 years of demonstrated expertise in strategic communications and public affairs. As General Manager of Edelman, a leading global communications marketing agency, Bridgitte counsels executives on corporate reputation management, crisis communications, and media strategy.
Prior to joining Edelman, she was Press Secretary to British Columbia Premier Gordon Campbell and an award-winning journalist. Bridgitte is a holder of the Institute of Corporate Directors Director designation and has earned the IAP2 Certificate in Public Participation.
She is Chair of the Women's Leadership Circle at GVBOT and a Trustee of the Jack Webster Foundation.
Rita Andreone Q.C.
Lawson Lundell LLP
Rita Andreone Q.C.LinkedIn
Ms. Andreone is the Lawson Lundell LLP firm Chair and a Corporate, Investment and Governance Senior Partner. She is published, quoted and nationally recognized as a lawyer for large and small businesses, international private equity investments, governance, and she has deep experience in asset/investment management, hospitality, travel and mining. Her broad director experience also specifically includes internet registry governance, insurance oversight, risk and enterprise resource management, talent management, government relations and strategic planning. She was born and resides with her family in Greater Vancouver and has a long history of community and professional service.
Kim Baird, C.M., O.B.C., ICD.D
Kim Baird Strategic Consulting
Kim Baird C.M., O.B.C., ICD.DLinkedIn
Kim is the owner of Kim Baird Strategic Consulting and offers First Nation related and strategic advice to industry, government and First Nations. While Chief of the Tsawwassen First Nation for over thirteen years, her most notable achievement was when she negotiated and implemented British Columbia's first urban treaty which is now culminating in expansive community development. She spent six years on the BC Hydro Board – providing her with in-depth knowledge on energy issues in BC. She is on several boards and has received numerous awards, including Indspire, the Order of Canada, and the Order of BC. Kim holds an Institute of Corporate Director's designation.
Jim's career has taken him around the world where he has been the Senior Financial Officer for a number of organizations. A career based mostly in real estate, he has significant M&A and corporate strategy experience and has guided several businesses through growth and significant change.
Most recently Jim was the COO of Beedie, a leading real estate developer and landlord. Prior to that Jim was the CFO of one of Canada's largest private real estate lending groups and was the Vice President of Finance for a major real estate development and construction company. He currently Chairs the ICBA and previously sat on other boards including the Pure Industrial REIT, Mainroad Contracting and the Dean's Advisory Board for the Beedie School of Business.
A graduate of Simon Fraser University, Jim has been a Chartered Accountant since 1986 and obtained his ICD designation in 2016.
Bosa Properties Inc.
Colin Bosa joined in the management and operation of the Bosa Group of Companies in 1993 and is currently CEO of Bosa Properties. The company is family owned and is a fully integrated Development, Construction and Real Estate owner of Industrial, Office, Retail and Apartment buildings.
Prior to taking on his role as CEO, Mr. Bosa worked his way up through the business in progressively expanding roles touching on all aspects of the development business. Mr. Bosa is a CFA charter holder.
Barbara Brink C.M., O.B.C.
Barbara Brink C.M., O.B.C.LinkedIn
Barbara was the founder, Chair and CEO and driving force behind the creation of Science World. She currently sits on the Boards of CPABC, Junior Achievement of BC, Architectural Institute of BC and the West Vancouver Community Centres Society which she founded and chaired. She is Co-Chair of the Business Laureates of BC Hall of Fame Cabinet. She Chaired the VGH and UBC Hospital Foundation, 2 year Chair of the United Way Campaign, founder of Leadership Vancouver, and Vice Chair of the Laurier Institution. She was on the Board of Legal Services Society and the West Vancouver Police Board. She is a consultant in Governance.
ISL Engineering and Land Services Ltd.
Neal is a strategic and success driven senior leader with over 2 decades of national and international consulting engineering experience working with federal, provincial, municipal and private sector clients across Canada, Britain and Australia. As the General Manager of Transportation for ISL, Neal is responsible for operations in the British Columbia region and leads projects requiring ISL's broad integrated teams of engineers, landscape architects, land use planners and technicians to deliver transportation infrastructure projects across British Columbia. In the community, Neal's volunteer roles include coaching youth rugby for the Capilano Rugby Club in North Vancouver.
Kevin is an experienced executive with a career built in the public transportation industry.
Prior to joining TransLink, Kevin was General Manager of King County Metro Transit serving the Seattle metropolitan region. At Metro, he oversaw a mix of transit modes, including buses, trains, vanpools, paratransit vans, and approximately 5,000 employees.
Prior to Metro Transit, Kevin was Vice-President of Operations and Development at Pierce Transit in Tacoma, Washington. Before relocating to the West Coast, Kevin acted as Chief of Operations Planning for New York City Transit.
Kevin has pioneered an array of operational, fleet, technology and market development initiatives over the years and has a long-standing commitment to progressive environmental policies and investments.
David Garofalo was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer of Goldcorp in February 2016. Prior to joining Goldcorp, David was President, CEO and Director of Hudbay since July 2010. Before joining Hudbay, David served as Senior Vice President, Finance and CFO with Agnico-Eagle Mines Limited (1998–2010). David was named Canada's CFO of the Year by Financial Executives International Canada (2009) and Top Gun CFO by Brendan Wood International (2009 and 2010) and was recognized by IR Magazine with awards for Best Investor Relations by a CFO (2009 and 2010) and Best Investor Relations by a CEO (2011). A graduate of the University of Toronto (B.Comm.), David is a Chartered Accountant and a Certified Director of the Institute of Corporate Directors (ICD.D).
Mark Hoag, CPA, CA
Mark Hoag, CPA, CA, is a Partner with MNP's Private Enterprise group in Vancouver with a focus on working with owner-operated businesses.
Mark works extensively with clients who have expanded internationally and has assisted on projects that include succession planning in multigenerational business operations. He has experience serving clients across Canada and internationally and has worked in Vancouver, Ottawa, and London, England.
In addition to the GVBOT, Mark is on the board of the Women's Enterprise Centre. He is also involved with youth soccer with the Vancouver Athletic Football.
Mr. Hoff is Senior Vice-President, Corporate Communications and Public Affairs for Ledcor, an employee-owned construction, resource, and transportation company HQed in Vancouver with operations across North America.
He previously served as Senior Director, Provincial Government Relations, Western Canada for Bell Canada / Mobility, and as CIBC's Regional Director, Corporate Communications and Public Affairs for Western Canada.
Earlier in his career, Mr. Hoff held the posts of Executive Assistant to the President of the Treasury Board and Policy Advisor, Asia, Africa and Development to the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Active in community circles, he currently serves on the boards of VIA Rail Canada and the Jack Webster Foundation.
Kevin Howlett is a recently retired executive from Air Canada, having held the position of Senior Vice President Regional Markets and Government Relations. During his 45 year career with the company, Kevin was the accountable executive for various departments, including Human Resources, Government Affairs, and Regional Operations, operating under the Air Canada Express brand.
Educated at the University of Prince Edward Island and Dalhousie, Kevin holds the CPHR (Chartered Professionals in Human Resources) designation. He is on the Board of Directors for the Vancouver Board of Trade, CPHR BC and Yukon, BC Women's Hospital and Health Care Foundation and the Thompson Okanagan Tourism Association. Kevin is a member of CELD (Canadian Emerging Leaders Dialogue) and he holds the Institute of Corporate Directors designation (ICD.D) from the Beedie School of Business at Simon Fraser University.
Concord Pacific Developments Ltd.
Business in Vancouver and Glacier Media
Kirk LaPointe leads the editorial operations of the Business in Vancouver Media Group as its Editor-in-Chief and is responsible for the editorial standards of parent firm Glacier Media, western Canada's largest news organization, as its Vice President, Editorial. He also teaches ethics and leadership as an Adjunct Professor and Executive-in-Residence at the Graduate School of Journalism at University of British Columbia.
He has been a media executive for three decades in Canada, leading the editorial operations of CTV News, Southam News and the Hamilton Spectator. He was the founding Executive Editor of National Post, Managing Editor of the Vancouver Sun, a program host on CBC Newsworld, the ombudsman for the CBC, and the Ottawa Bureau Chief and General News Editor of The Canadian Press, among other roles. He ran for mayor of Vancouver in 2014 and has a BA in Journalism from Ryerson University.
Michael leads the British Columbia sales organization for Commercial Accounts. His team focuses on delivering technology based solutions to clients enabling them to grow through effective communication and collaboration.
In a competitive industry, Michael's priority is to build an advantage through the development of what he believes is TELUS' largest asset: its people and culture. Michael's passion for technology and innovation is superseded only by his passion for developing his team members. He believes in instilling an entrepreneurial spirit within his team, and measures his own success as a leader by how many team members he inspires to unlock their true potential and achieve success previously not thought possible.
Michael lives by TELUS' philosophy to Give Where You Live, and when he isn't cheering on his kids at a soccer game, hiking in the local mountains, or hitting the ski hills, he can be found helping others achieve their goals. Currently, Michael is an active supporter of BC Children's Hospital and the Langley Youth Soccer Association. He serves as a board member for the Forum for Women Entrepreneurs; the Greater Vancouver Board of Trade; and Junior Achievement British Columbia.
Sarah McCullough is a communications professional with more than two decades of experience in British Columbia's natural gas sector.
Most recently she served as director of external affairs and communications for Spectra Energy's Canadian LNG business, responsible for development of natural gas infrastructure investment opportunities related to liquefied natural gas in Western Canada, as well as development of strategies to address market, regulatory, and stakeholder risks associated with potential LNG projects. Prior to assuming this role, Sarah served as director of government relations for Spectra Energy Transmission's Western Canadian operations, responsible for leading the organization's government relations and climate change functions. Sarah has significant experience in communications and stakeholder outreach, policy development, advocacy strategy and execution, and local and Aboriginal supply chain inclusion.
Jessica served as President and CEO of BC Hydro from July 2014 to July 2017, overseeing one of the largest utilities in Canada, with 6,000 employees, over $5.8 billion in revenue, providing 98% clean energy and the third lowest rates in North America.
As part of a new focus on customer service and employee engagement, Jessica led a brand, vision, and values refresh resulting in the company being named in 2016 as the #1 most influential brand in BC, as well by Forbes as Canada's #1 employer.
Jessica has been named to Canada's 40 Under 40™, 35 most influential women in B.C., and Canada's 100 Most Powerful Women.
Patricia Mohr is the former Vice-President, Economics & Commodity Market Specialist at Scotiabank's Executive Offices in Toronto. Ms. Mohr worked closely with Corporate and Investment Banking – including the Mining, Oil & Gas and Forest Products teams – and with Global Risk Management, preparing the commodity price forecasts for credit adjudication at The Bank.
Ms. Mohr developed the 'Scotiabank Commodity Price Index' – the first index designed to measure price trends for Canadian commodities in export markets. Pat is a frequent speaker at international conferences such as 'China Mining 2015' in Tianjin, the International 'Gold & Silver Symposium' in Lima, Peru, PDAC in Toronto and the Platts' 'Crude Oil Markets Conference' in Houston. Pat has spoken many times to the annual forest products conventions of COFI and the Maritime Lumber Bureau.
Ms. Mohr has a passionate interest in furthering Canada's international trade, as a Director on the Greater Vancouver Board of Trade. Pat has also recently been appointed to the Board of Directors of Avalon Advanced Materials, a Canadian mining company serving industrial clients with lithium, tin and specialty metals. Ms. Mohr is a Director of Emissions Reduction Alberta (ERA) – channelling public funds into leading-edge R&D for GHG mitigation. Reducing the carbon footprint of the Alberta oil sands, and securing Alberta's economic success in a lower carbon world are key objectives.
An award-winning entrepreneur and investor, Meredith is a Venture Partner with Voyager Capital, Cascadia's leading enterprise software fund invested across CA, OR, WA and BC with $500M USD AUM. Prior to working in tech VC, she successfully launched and scaled three companies the most recent of which - a B2B digital marketplace - was acquired by UBM Global in 2014.
Meredith is a sought-after expert on innovative leadership, emerging technology and early stage venture models as well as funding. She is featured regularly in the media and serves on various public and private boards. Her nonprofit commitments include increasing diversity at the executive level, championing youth entrepreneurship and STEAM, and supporting the performance arts.
Meredith serves on the Governor General's Innovation Awards committee and is Startup Canada's National award winner for promoting entrepreneurship, one of The Boardlist's Top Women in Tech, and a YWCA Women of Distinction winner for Entrepreneurship & Innovation.
Elise Rees, FCPA, ICD.D
Elise Rees, FCPA, ICD.DLinkedIn
Elise Rees, FCPA, ICD.D is a retired partner of Ernst & Young LLP, and is a strategic senior executive with over 35 years' experience advising clients on finances and tax, specializing in mergers and acquisitions for the last 14 years. She is a trusted business advisor and was recognized as a 2015 Top 100 Most Powerful Women in Canada. As a partner in Big 4 focused on the transaction world, Elise advised Boards and senior management on complex issues for Global Corporations as well as Private Equity and Sovereign Wealth Funds. She has advised clients on Risk and Risk Management Strategies as well as a senior client service partner for global businesses.
Elise is now an independent director serving as Chair of EasyPark, Parking Corporation of Vancouver; and as a director of Enmax Corporation, an Albertan power utility, Great Panther Silver, an international mining company and Westland Insurance Group, an insurance brokerage with a property and casualty insurance subsidiary. She has served in various roles with the Greater Vancouver Board of Trade including Secretary-Treasurer.
Vancouver Airport Authority
Craig Richmond, President & CEO, Vancouver Airport Authority (YVR), is the driving force behind YVR, known for its innovative approach, forward-looking strategy and exceptional customer care. His strong aviation background spans diverse roles at home and abroad as a pilot for the Royal Canadian Air Force, pivotal roles at YVR and CEO positions with Vantage Airport Group at six airports in three countries.
Since rejoining YVR as President & CEO, Craig has overseen the airport's vision to become a world-class sustainable connecting hub linking Asia to the Americas. Craig leads a dedicated team to deliver an amazing airport experience focused on safety, efficiency and comfort.
Under Craig's leadership, YVR has grown at one of the fastest rates in Canada—having welcomed a record 22.3 million passengers in 2016. YVR was voted YVR Best Airport in North America for a record eight consecutive years at the 2017 Skytrax World Airport Awards.
Lorne Segal, O.B.C.
Kingswood Properties Ltd.
NexGen Energy Ltd.
Bruce was a Partner and the BC Private Client Services Tax Leader for EY. He has been practicing for over 25 years and has been a partner for 13 years. He has considerable experience advising Boards and Senior Executives on a range of issues including succession planning, governance, estate and trust planning.
Bruce works with a wide range of diversified private businesses and has experience engaging in proactive tax planning for companies in Canada and globally. Bruce has considerable experience managing the myriad of issues associated with family business.
In addition to bringing substantial technical and leadership skills to the overall direction of his mandates, Bruce is a trusted advisor to his high net worth clients on cross-border tax issues.
SAP Labs Canada
Kirsten Sutton is an unconventional tech leader. From a professionally trained chef, Kirsten navigated a significant career pivot to become one of Vancouver's most celebrated tech execs. As Vice President and Managing Director of SAP Labs Canada, Kirsten is one of only two female Managing Directors within the worldwide SAP Labs Network. She is also the Global Head of Engineering for SAP Jam, leading a multinational development team on a product with over 51 million subscribers. Kirsten was recognized in 2018 as one of Business in Vancouver's Influential Women in Business and a YWCA Woman of Distinction.
An advocate for girls in tech, she supports education initiatives like Templeton STEM and GIRLsmarts4tech and has led the way for SAP Canada's adoption of Autism@Work, an initiative to hire 650 individuals on the autism spectrum globally. Kirsten proudly gives her time as co-chair of the President's Group, a network of British Columbia business leaders who champion accessible, inclusive workplaces and as board chair of Minerva BC. She also serves as director of the board of the Greater Vancouver Board of Trade and Science World British Columbia and as governor on the Honorary Governor's Council of the Vancouver Foundation.
Taymor Industries Ltd.
Vivian Zalkow is actively involved in the leadership of the Zalkow Group of Companies. As CEO of Taymor Industries, where the principal ownership of the company by the Zalkow family dates back to 1948, she has played a pivotal role in positioning the company as a leader in the decorative hardware industry in North America. The founding values of continuous learning, collaboration, and innovation continue today, ensuring the sustainability and success of the company.
Vivian's additional involvement, in other integral entities in the Zalkow Group of Companies, includes Mason Investments, a diversified real estate management company, Norco Bicycles, a leading brand of high-performance bikes and accessories, and the Zalkow Foundation, established to support medical advancements and community. In alignment with the values of the Zalkow Group and grateful for the expertise obtained as an FCPA, Vivian is personally committed to contributing her time to several Boards and committees, currently including the GVBOT and YPO.